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Fundamental ratios are key tools used by financial analysts to evaluate the profitability and risks of a given security. In this article, we will explore how fundamental ratios are used in the process of security analysis.

**Price-to-Earnings (P/E) Ratio**: The P/E ratio is a commonly used fundamental ratio that compares the current market price of a stock to its earnings per share (EPS). A high P/E ratio indicates that investors expect the company's earnings to grow in the future, while a low P/E ratio suggests that the stock may be undervalued. Analysts use the P/E ratio to determine whether a stock is overvalued or undervalued relative to its earnings growth potential.**Debt-to-Equity (D/E) Ratio**: The D/E ratio measures a company's financial leverage by comparing its total debt to its total equity. A high D/E ratio suggests that the company is heavily reliant on debt financing, which can increase its financial risk. Analysts use this ratio to evaluate the level of risk associated with a company's financial structure and determine whether it is financially stable.**Return on Equity (ROE)**: ROE is a measure of a company's profitability, calculated as net income divided by shareholder equity. Analysts use ROE to evaluate a company's ability to generate profits and determine whether it is an efficient user of equity. A high ROE indicates that a company is effectively using its equity to generate profits, while a low ROE suggests that the company is not utilizing its equity efficiently.**Dividend Yield**: The dividend yield is a measure of the amount of income a stock generates for its investors through dividends. Analysts use this ratio to evaluate the income-generating potential of a stock and determine whether it is a suitable investment for income-seeking investors.**Price-to-Book (P/B) Ratio**: The P/B ratio is a measure of a stock's market value relative to its book value, which is the value of its assets minus its liabilities. Analysts use this ratio to determine whether a stock is undervalued or overvalued relative to its intrinsic value. A low P/B ratio may indicate that the stock is undervalued, while a high P/B ratio suggests that the stock is overvalued.

Fundamental ratios play a crucial role in the process of security analysis. By providing insight into a company's financial performance, profitability, and risk, fundamental ratios help analysts make informed investment decisions. By understanding and utilizing these ratios, financial analysts can better evaluate the potential for growth and risk associated with a given security.